Основные докладчики

Jukka Hyönä
http://users.utu.fi/hyona/
Ph.D.
Professor
Head of the Division of Psychology
Docent, Cognitive Psychology
Turku University
Tomsk State University

Using eye-tracking to study second language processing

Details to be announced.

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Armina Janyan
http://old.nbu.bg/cogs/cvs/ajanyan.html
Assist. Prof. in Cognitive Science
Associate member of Laboratory for Cognitive Studies in Language, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia

Cognitive control in bilinguals and monolinguals


Previous work has shown that bilinguals often outperform monolinguals in non-verbal tasks that require executive control in conflict resolution. It is argued that the regular need of bilinguals to select a target language and to inhibit the non-target one enhances cognitive control (and/or improves selective attention). The talk will briefly overview the current state of research and will present additional data showing the differences between monolingual and bilingual speakers in doubled conflict resolution experiments.

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Judith Wylie
http://pure.qub.ac.uk/portal/en/persons/judith-wylie(7090eff8-391a-421e-8adf-6b4ec55fe76c).html
School of Psychology - Lecturer
Cognition, Development and Education
Centre for Evidence and Social Innovation

Is it black and white?  Knowledge of binomial expressions across five countries

There is widespread acceptance that formulaic language - pre-fabricated word strings - is fundamental for everyday communication.  Recent estimates suggest that formulaic utterances account for between 20% and 50% of adult native language (Siyanova-Chanturia, 2015). While formulaic language can aid communication, its acquisition and use can be challenging for second language learners and bilinguals.  This study investigated knowledge of one specific type of formulaic language - binomial expressions (e.g. here and there, supply and demand) in native English speakers and four groups of non-native speakers.  We used a lexical decision task where participants judged if expressions were presented in normal order (king and queen) or reversed (queen and king), to investigate knowledge of high and low frequency binomials in native (monolingual) and non-native (bilingual) speakers.  We also explored the usefulness of several alternative methods for probing mental representations of our target collocations, and for obtaining participant ratings of phrasal frequency.  Participants were 227 university students from five countries (Hong Kong, Malta, Japan, Russia, UK) selected for their varying levels of English language proficiency, and different patterns of L1/L2 English.  For the lexical decision task, analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of binomial order, binomial frequency and country (proficiency) on response time and accuracy.  A number of interactions involving country emerged for both RT and accuracy.  In general, participants with lower English proficiency were slower and less accurate in their judgments than those with higher proficiency, particularly when the word order in phrases was reversed.  As predicted, phrasal frequency emerged as an important factor.  Results for other measures including phrase completion, recall and recognition will be discussed.  Overall, our results indicate that non-native speakers struggle with low frequency phrases and that they often fail to distinguish between normal and reversed presentation order.  Implications for instruction will be considered.


Reference
Siyanova-Chanturia, A. (2015). On the ‘holistic’ nature of formulaic language. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistics Theory, 11, 285-301.

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Ivan Vankov
https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=53985455100
Assistant Professor
Department of Cognitive science and psychology
New Bulgarian University

Beyond ANOVA: state of the art tools for analyzing psycholinguistic data

Traditionally, psycholinguistic data is analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). There are however cases in which the use of ANOVA is not justified. More than 50 years ago Herbert Clark identified the "language-as-fixed-effect" fallacy which often leads to erroneous interpretation of psycholinguistic data. Clark made recommendations how to treat such data, but they are rarely followed because they require extra computations and make it harder to produce statistically significant results. Modern statistical tools, such as linear mixed modelling and Bayesian parameter estimation, can address the problem in a way which is theoretically sound and easy to use, while not sacrificing statistical power. I also discuss how these methods can be used to solve other problems in analyzing psycholinguistic data such as treating response times outliers and preventing cherry-picking.

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Lei Cui
http://www.psy.sdnu.edu.cn/info/1057/1314.htm
Associate Professor
Department of Psychology
Shandong Normal University, China

Cognitive processing during Chinese reading (eye movement control model, compound processing and text comprehension)

The interaction between predictability effect and preview processing for one- and two- character word in Chinese normal reading
We report a boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) eye movement experiment to investigate whether the predictability that a character will be a word on its own, or the second character of a two character word affects how it is processed prior to direct fixation during reading. The invisible boundary was positioned prior to the one-character word or the second character of the two-character word (see Example). We also manipulated whether the target character was or was not predictable. The preview was either a pseudo-character or an identity preview.
We obtained clear preview effects in all conditions, but also found an effect of the preview on fixations on the preceding character (arguably, a parafoveal-on-foveal effect). This effect only occurred when the target word was highly predictable from the preceding context. Moreover, the preview effects were larger when the target character was the second character of a two-character word than when it was a one-character word, indicating that preview processing of the second character of a two-character word was not only influenced by the preceding context but also by constraints deriving from the first character. We conclude that information about both a word’s constituent likelihood, as well as its likelihood based on preceding context is used on-line to moderate the extent to which upcoming characters are processed for meaning.
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Ute Gabriel 
https://www.ntnu.edu/employees/ute
Professor
Department of Psychology
Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway

Social-cognitive correlates of cross-linguistic variation in genderisation

Nouns and pronouns that refer to humans can carry gender information. The gender of the person referred to can constitute part of the word’s meaning (as in queen or wonderwoman), but it can also be coded grammatically (as in German: die Lehrerin [the female teacher] vs. der Lehrer [the male teacher]). Languages vary in the extent to which the sex of human referents is grammatically taken care of, ranging from languages that do not mark referent gender at all to languages that mark referent gender in several lexical categories. In this talk, I argue that this variety is linked to differences in language-mediated social cognition. I will present results from a series of experiments conducted in Finnish, French and Norwegian employing word-to-word priming and sentence-to-picture priming tasks. Languages were selected in line with a categorization of languages in fully gendered (grammatical gender languages), semi-gendered (natural gender languages) and non-gendered. Results revealing both language specific and nonspecific effects will be discussed (among others) in terms of their implications for multilingualism.